One question that I frequently get from clients is about their dog putting on weight when I discuss using food to train. Many people are concerned that by giving their dog lots of treats they'll contribute to a possible weight problem. I've heard this from both pet owners and veterinary professionals. It is very true that many of our pet dogs are overweight or obese, and that this can contribute to shorter lifespans and other health issues, but truthfully most of the overweight dogs I meet are simply overfed, under-exercised, and simply getting too many calories. Just like with humans, if a dog is taking in more calories than they are spending they will start to accumulate weight, This does not mean you can't use treats in training, you just may need to change what you're doing in terms of your dog's regular feeding and choose your treats wisely. It's entirely possible (simple, really!) to keep your dog at a steady weight or to lose weight even while training using positive reinforcement. If you'd like a good visual reference for the ideal weight for dogs see this body condition score from The World Animal Small Veterinary Association, and obviously chat with your vet if this is a concern.
So, here are my favorite tips for helping your dog maintain or lose weight even while training:
Use their meals
This is one of the most common tips given, and it does work as long as A) your dog really likes their kibble and B) you aren't working around too many distractions. Even for a dog that likes their kibble, you often times need a more novel and high value treat to compete with real life distractions like other dogs and prey animals. But if you're working indoors in a controlled environment kibble may do! So, if you give your dog two cups of food a day, reserve 1 cup for training, and give your dog only a half cup at each feeding.
Cut back on their meals
If using the kibble isn't going to work, you can still use your dog's favorite treats (see my resources page for my favorite treat suggestions),